Heat is transferred between different bodies (e.g. from sun to earth, from earth to air) in several ways:
When heat radiates out from the sun it is known as Solar Radiation. The electromagnetic heat waves pass through the atmosphere and are absorbed by the surface of the Earth.
When two bodies are in contact, heat is passed from one to the other. This is known as conduction.
After the Earth’s surface has absorbed the heat from solar radiation, the air in contact with the Earth is heated through conduction.
The air that is heated becomes less dense and begins to rise. This vertical movement of air is known as convection.
As this parcel of warm air rises, the cooler air to either side will move in to replace it. This horizontal movement of air is known as advection.