The Earth
The Solar System & Time
Using Aeronautical Charts
Basics of Navigation
Distance, Speed & Time
Vertical Navigation
Fuel Planning
Practical Navigation Techniques
Radio Navigation
Practice Exam

Hemispheres, Poles & the Axis


The Earth is divided into two hemispheres – the northern hemisphere above the equator (north latitudes) and the southern hemisphere below the equator (south latitudes).


At the ‘top’ and ‘bottom’ of the Earth are the two poles – the north pole at 90°N and the south pole at 90°S. All the lines of longitude converge at the two poles.

Earth’s Axis

The Earth’s axis is an imaginary line drawn through the Earth from the north pole to the south pole. When viewed from above the north pole, the Earth rotates anticlockwise around this axis.